While most military services exist today with a smaller regular force size, they continue to maintain a highly operational ready reserved force (or reservists). Almost all do not adopted a volunteer structure. The contemplation of a full scale conflict between countries are today caustiously avoided to prevent a repeat of the post-war catastrophes of the first and second world war. The European Union and European Economic Community were a result of early Dunkirk Treaty (1947) and Brussels Treaty (1948), and focused on capitalist policies and domestic ecobomic growth. Today, many home front services employ Special Constabulary which are also referred to as special constables or informally as "specials". Special constables hold full police powers and hold the office of constable. Historically, and in different contexts, special constables have been paid or volunteer members of a reserve force or a permanent auxiliary, and have ranged from unarmed patrols to armed paramilitaries.
Malay Federated States
There were historical records of frontiersmen before the formation of the Malay Federated States, in the state of Kelatin (Kelantan) and Grik (near Perak), and Singapore. The Malay Federated States (FMS) was established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946. The FMS do not maintain a volunteer structure within the military force. The Federation of Malaya was later formed in 1948, which gained independence in 1957, and finally the establishment of Malaysia in 1963.
The Frontiersmen of British Malaya had been put on a vigil for several weeks. A planter on a French-owned estate, Bill Bangs, like many of his kind, enlisted in the Frontier Patrol….. he overheard japanese from the old Bukit Lanchap mine in Kelantan boasting drunkenly in a bar in Naratiwat about an invasin happening the next day….. He pased on his information that night to the British Commandader in Kota Bahru.
Forgotten Armies: Britain's Asian Empire
and the War with Japan, 2004
The People's Volunteer Corps (also known as Jabatan Sukarelawan Malaysia), abbreviated RELA, is a paramilitary civil volunteer corps formed by the Malaysian government in the 1960s. Their main duty is to check the traveling documents and immigration permits of foreigners in Malaysian cities, including tourists, visitors and migrants to reduce the increasing rate of illegal immigrants in Malaysia. Dressed in military fatigues, RELA has the authority to deal with situations like policemen. The Police Volunteer Reserve (PVR), however existed as early as 1957. The Police Volunteer Reserve (also known as Sukarelawan Polis) is a special police as well as a supporting unit of the full-time Royal Malaysian Police force (also known as Polis Diraja Republik Malaysia) where normal citizens could volunteer to help to maintain peace and security of their respective provinces. Under the National Blue Ocean Strategies, PVR has a strength of 15,000 and targeted to reach 50,000 members by 2020.
Sukarelawan Polis and Jabatan Sukarelawan Malaysia
The Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) (RHKR(V)) was formed in May 1854, and has a command structure akin to a local auxiliary militia force, funded and administered by the colonial Government of Hong Kong. Prior to World War I and II, home defence units were raised in various British colonies with the intention of allowing regular army units tied up on garrison duty to be deployed elsewhere. These units were generally organised along British Army lines. The first locally raised militia in Hong Kong was the Hong Kong Volunteers, a fore runner of what was to become the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers). The RHKR was officially disbanded on September 1995 and placed under the Special Branch of the HKPF. Today the Hong Kong Police Force and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force are the only two police forces in Hong Kong during peacetime. The Hong Kong Laws Chapter 245 (Public Order Ordinance), section 40, appoint Special Constables at any time, who will possess any powers given to regular police officers and are subject to the same Code of Conduct. However, under section 41 (subsection 3) of the same ordinance, Special Constables are not entitled to pay, benefits, or pensions.
Royal Hong Kong Regiment (RHKR) Soldiers
There are no historical records of frontiersmen in the state of Singapore before or after independence. Declared an independent state in 1965, national service conscripts governed by the Enlistment Act (Chapter 93) transits to Singaporeans after a two year service to reserves in the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), Singapore Police Force (SPF) and Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF).
Volunteer Special Constabulary (VSC)
Civilians and professionals who contribute to the police force on a voluntary basis belong to an organisation known as the Volunteer Special Constabulary (VSC), a department in the Singapore Police Force. The VSC was formed in 1946 to augment the regulars immediately after the war, when manpower was badly needed to restore law and order. About 150 men responded to appeals made in the press and formed the pioneer batch of the VSC. The VSC has since grown to over 1000 and contributed significantly in maintaining law and order in Singapore.
Singapore Armed Forces Volunteer Corp (SAFVC)
Civil Defence Auxiliary Unit (CDAU)
The Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) established their Civil Defence Auxiliary Unit (CDAU) in 2006 and has a strength of 500 in 2018. The SAF Volunteer Corps (SAFVC) is a uniformed volunteer scheme that was established in October 2014 to encourage Singaporean women, first generation Permanent Residents and new immigrant/naturalised-citizens to perform mobilised duties on a volunteer basis. The SAFVC has a strength of 550 in 2018.
The Singapore Maritime Division was formed in 1907. The Admiralty has given the Legion of Frontiersmen full authority to organise a Naval Branch, and to generally equip and train men for sea service, either from a naval or mercantile point of view.
The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 1907
Maritime capability in the VSC exist within the Police Coast Guard (PCG) with a volunteer force size of close to 50 officers, the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) with close to 100 servicemen and service women and CDAU paramedics can serve on rescue platforms like patrol crafts and hovercrafts.